How to Find and Remove @eaDir Directories on Synology NAS

Posted September 26th, 2013 in Linux

If you’ve installed the MediaServer or PhotoStation packages on your Synology NAS you’ve probably noticed @eaDir directories popping up everywhere. These are “hidden” folders equivalent to thumbs.db on Windows where the package stores thumbnail files associated with iTunes support. If you’re not using iTunes you don’t need these directories. You can remove them in two steps:

Disable the Service Creating Them

SSH in as root and run the following:

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cd /usr/syno/etc.defaults/rc.d/
chmod 000 S66fileindexd.sh S66synoindexd.sh S77synomkthumbd.sh S88synomkflvd.sh S99iTunes.sh

Remove the existing directories

Again in SSH use the following to locate them (cd to your volume root first):

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find . -type d -name "@eaDir"

and if you’re feeling adventurous you can automatically delete them like so:

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find . -type d -name "@eaDir" -print0 | xargs -0 rm -rf

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How to Mount a Broken EXT4 Drive

Posted June 2nd, 2013 (Updated 19 Jul 2013) in Linux

This morning I noticed one of my drives wasn’t mounted so I attempted to mount manually and got the following error message:

$ sudo mount /dev/sdi1 /mnt/my_drive/

mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/sdi1,
missing codepage or helper program, or other error
In some cases useful info is found in syslog – try
dmesg | tail or so

Strange. Following the messages advice I checked out dmesg:

$ dmesg | tail

[ 213.962722] EXT4-fs (sdi1): no journal found

 

The Solution

If this happens to you, you can ignore the error and mount in readonly mode using the following command:

sudo mount -o loop,ro,noexec,noload /dev/sdi1 /mnt/your_broken_partition/

Thanks to Computer Forensics for their useful post on this issue.

ALWAYS BACKUP YOUR DATA

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Create and Manage a RAID Array in Ubuntu

Posted December 30th, 2012 (Updated 10 Aug 2014) in Linux

The below is a collaboration of useful information I’ve found while attempting to build and maintain a RAID5 array consisting of 4 HDDs. This tutorial is a work in progress and I’m learning everything as I go. I’ve left relevant links in each section for more information and if you spot anything that could be done better or that I’m missing let me know in the comments below!

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Installing RocketRaid 2760a drivers on Ubuntu 12.10

Posted November 8th, 2012 (Updated 30 Dec 2012) in Linux

So I don’t forget, here’s a tutorial on installing the RocketRaid 2760a drivers and management utilities on Ubuntu 12.10. I’m using 64-bit but 32-bit should be the same – just substitute where appropriate.

Installing the Driver

The installation disc comes with an out of date version of the driver and kernel module. The way the installation works, we need to download and compile the kernel module then download the driver installer, drop the module into place and run the installer. Make sure you have appropriate compiler tools installed – to be safe just run

sudo apt-get install ubuntu-dev-tools

Download and extract the ones with kernel 3.x support from the HighPoint website:

mkdir ~/driver
cd ~/driver
# driver
wget http://www.highpoint-tech.com/BIOS_Driver/RR276x/linux/Ubuntu/rr276x-ubuntu-11.10-x86_64-v1.1.12.0502.tgz
tar -xvzf rr276x-ubuntu-11.10-x86_64-v1.1.12.0502.tgz
# kernel module
mkdir module
cd module
wget http://www.highpoint-tech.com/BIOS_Driver/RR276x/linux/RR276x-Linux-Src-v1.1-120424-1734.tar.gz
tar -xvzf  RR276x-Linux-Src-v1.1-120424-1734.tar.gz

Build and compress the kernel module for our driver installer:

cd rr276x-linux-src-v1.1/product/rr276x/linux/
make
# Ignore the warning about not being able to find him_rr2760x.o...doesn't seem to matter
gzip rr276x.ko
mv rr276x.ko.gz ~/driver/boot/rr276x$(uname -r)$(uname -m).ko.gz

And finally install the driver

cd ~/driver
sudo bash preinst.sh

This step succeeded! Now you can press ALT+F1 to switch back to the installation screen!

sudo bash install.sh

Update initrd file /boot/initrd.img-3.5.0-17-generic for 3.5.0-17-generic
Please reboot the system to use the new driver module.

sudo shutdown -r now

That should be everything! You can now test with

cat /proc/scsi/rr276x/*

 

Installing the RAID Management Software

Annoyingly the RAID management console is difficult to install to say the least. The GUI deb packages error when trying to install and HighPoint don’t even provide a deb for the command line version and to top it off the version of the command line utility on the driver CD is newer than the version on their site! For this reason I’ve provided the newer command line RPMs here.

Let’s get this thing installed.

Web version:

mkdir ~/driver/utility
mkdir ~/driver/utility/console
mkdir ~/driver/utility/web
cd ~/driver/utility/web
echo "rr276x" | sudo tee -a /etc/hptcfg > /dev/null
wget http://www.highpoint-tech.com/BIOS_Driver/GUI/linux/WebGui/WebGUI-Linux-v2.1-120419.tgz
tar -xzvf WebGUI-Linux-v2.1-120419.tgz
sudo apt-get -y install alien
sudo alien -d hptsvr-https-2.1-12.0419.$(uname -m).rpm
sudo dpkg -i hptsvr-https_2.1-13.0419_amd64.deb

 

Command Line version:

cd ~/driver/utility/console
wget http://www.flynsarmy.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/LinuxRaidUtilityConsole.tar.gz
sudo alien -d hptraidconf-3.5-1.$(uname -m).rpm
sudo alien -d hptsvr-3.13-7.$(uname -m).rpm
sudo dpkg -i hptraidconf_3.5-2_amd64.deb

Run the web server:

sudo hptsvr

You should now be able to connect to it from your browser by navigating to http://localhost:7402 with username RAID and password hpt.

 

Further Reading

HOWTO: Get GUI hptsvr & hptraid 3.13 working on Ubuntu
HighPoint driver download page for RocketRaid 2760a

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Partitioning and Formatting New Disks in Linux

Posted November 4th, 2012 in Linux

The below is a quick guide to creating partitions on a newly purchased, unformatted disk. For this guide I’ll be formatting a new WD 2TB Black.

 

Find the disk you want to partition

# lsblk

NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda 8:0 0 55.9G 0 disk
├─sda1 8:1 0 53.6G 0 part /
├─sda2 8:2 0 1K 0 part
└─sda5 8:5 0 2.3G 0 part [SWAP]
sdb 8:16 0 1.8T 0 disk
sdc 8:32 0 1.8T 0 disk

Partitions appear as subitems. Notice sdb and sdc have no partitions – those are the disks I want to format.

 

Create the partition

# sudo fdisk /dev/sdb

Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0xd3e43840.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won’t be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag 0×0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

Command (m for help):

Below I’m using the default values to create one large partition for the whole disk.

n

Partition type:
p primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)
e extended

Select (default p):
Using default response p
Partition number (1-4, default 1):
Using default value 1
First sector (2048-3907029167, default 2048):
Using default value 2048
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (2048-3907029167, default 3907029167):
Using default value 3907029167

Command (m for help):

All done? Write!

w

The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

That’s all for partitioning! Take a gander at your fancy new partitions:

# lsblk

NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda 8:0 0 55.9G 0 disk
├─sda1 8:1 0 53.6G 0 part /
├─sda2 8:2 0 1K 0 part
└─sda5 8:5 0 2.3G 0 part [SWAP]
sdb 8:16 0 1.8T 0 disk
└─sdb1 8:17 0 1.8T 0 part
sdc 8:32 0 1.8T 0 disk
└─sdc1 8:33 0 1.8T 0 part

 

Format to NTFS

I’m choosing a quick format. You may choose instead to remove the -f argument for a proper one instead.

# sudo mkntfs -f /dev/sdb1

Cluster size has been automatically set to 4096 bytes.
Creating NTFS volume structures.
mkntfs completed successfully. Have a nice day.

 

Optional: Name the drives

Because I’m running NTFS I can give the drives labels. Make sure you have ntfsprogs installed then enter:

# sudo ntfslabel -f /dev/sdb1 YourLabel

 

More Information

For more information on partitioning check out Chris Wakefield’s post here.
For a short and sweet howto on  formatting as NTFS check here.
Information on NTFS labels here.

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Remove a PPA and roll back changes in Debian

Posted May 10th, 2012 in Linux

If you’re a Ubuntu user, you may be familiar with ppa-purge. It’s a handy little automated script to remove a PPA and roll back the version of any apps installed from that PPA. Debian doesn’t have this nicety by default but there’s a relatively simple way to get something close.

Firstly, remove your PPA from /etc/apt/sources.list or from the /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ directory.

Do an update:

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sudo apt-get update

Find any packages that are now obsolete:

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aptitude search '?obsolete'

For me this returned the following:

# aptitude search '?obsolete'
i A libmysqlclient18      - MySQL database client library                                                                           
i A mysql-client-5.5      - MySQL database client binaries                                                                          
i A mysql-server-5.5      - MySQL database server binaries and system database setup                                                
i A mysql-server-core-5.5 - MySQL database server binaries                                                                          
i A ruby-passenger        - Rails and Rack support for Apache2 and Nginx

Now just remove the listed packages with apt-get remove and reinstall as necessary. It’s not quite the automated tool that ppa-purge is, but it’s a pretty good start.

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A few handy Exim commands

Posted May 9th, 2012 in Linux

I’ve been getting alot of frozen messages with Exim and needed to find out what they were so figured I’d document a few handy commands for doing so:

List messages in queue:

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exim -bp

Show message header/body:

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exim -Mvh <id> #For header
exim -Mvb <id> #For body

Delete all messages in queue:

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exim -bp | exiqgrep -i | xargs exim -Mrm

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How to add an application to the ‘Other Applications’ list in Ubuntu

Posted May 6th, 2012 (Updated 9 May 2012) in Linux

It seems Gnome 3 removed the button allowing users to add specified applications into the ‘Other Applications’ list under ‘Open With’ in file properties. Until the functionality is restored, you can add applications manually by doing the below:

cp /usr/share/applications/gedit.desktop ~/.local/share/applications/your_app.desktop

Modify the contents of your_app.deskop to look something like the below:

[Desktop Entry]
Name=your_app
GenericName=Your App
Comment=Edit text files
Keywords=Plaintext;Write;
Exec=your_app %U
Terminal=false
Type=Application
StartupNotify=true
MimeType=text/plain;
Icon=accessories-text-editor
Categories=GNOME;GTK;Utility;TextEditor;
Actions=Window;Document;
X-Ubuntu-Gettext-Domain=your_app

You can copy any .desktop file from /usr/share/applications so pick the one that closest resembles the application you’re adding. Below you can see komodo added to mine:

Komodo has been added to my 'Open With' list
Komodo has been added to my ‘Open With’ list

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Change default ‘From’ email name from www-data in PHP

Posted April 19th, 2012 (Updated 22 Apr 2012) in Linux, PHP

I’ve been seeing up an Amazon EC-2 server with Debian Squeeze and used tasksel to install Web Server and Mail Server. Like all things debian, this worked pretty well after the installation completed and everything ‘just worked’ however I wasn’t happy with the default from name and email address assigned to emails sent by PHP – www-data <www-data@my.domain.com>.

I discovered a quick and simple fix to change these defaults for all mail sent with PHP:

Open /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini and set

sendmail_path = '/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i -fno-reply@my.domain.com -Fno-reply'

You can see a list of sendmail arguments and what they do here.

Restart apache and you’re good to go:

sudo service apache2 restart

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Use Apache Alongside Nginx Without Requiring a Subdomain

Posted March 18th, 2012 in Linux, PHP

I’ve been looking for ways to speed up my site recently and came across this interesting article on seamlessly integrating nginx with Apache to handle asset files without requiring a CDN subdomain. This works by checking the requests file extension for .js, .jpg, .pdf etc and if not found, proxies the request to Apache and serves the results.

Benefits

You won’t need to modify all your pages/posts updating asset locations to point to a subdomain! Everything will ‘just work’.

Issues/Drawbacks

There are 2 issues I’ve found with this setup:

  • Because Apache is now running on port 8080, your mod_rewrite redirects will now redirect to that port. You won’t be able to use RedirectMatch anymore, however below is the solution I came up with:
    RewriteEngine on
    RewriteRule ^foo.php$ http://%{HTTP_HOST}:80/bar.php [R=301,L]
  • You can no longer use .htaccess redirects for any asset files nginx is serving. Instead, use nginx redirects. Below is an example:
    rewrite ^/foo.jpg$ http://173.255.221.210/bar.jpg permanent;

    For more information on nginx redirects, see the official documentation.

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